These features make the private keys that control a cryptocurrency wallet an appealing target for thieves. Stealing cryptocurrency keys offers a much more certain and direct route to profit than other information thefts such as email or credit card credentials. Plausible attacks include phishing and social engineering, malware, fake software libraries and applications, malicious hardware, and network attacks. The rise of cryptocurrency marks a new era in information security for personal computing. Never before have the stakes been so high.